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Cataract

 

Definition:

  • Opacity in the lens or its capsule is called cataract.

Causes of cataract

  • Old age (Senile)
  • Trauma to eye
  • Diabetes
  • Drugs (Steroid)
  • Uveitis

Classification of cataract
      Cataract is classified into different groups

  • Classification based on Etiology:
  • Old age (Senile)
  • Trauma to eye
  • Diabetes
  • Drugs (Steroid)
  • Uveitis

 

Sty (Stye)

 

Definition:

  • It is an acute bacterial inflammation of eyelash follicle.

Causes:

  • Staphylococcus

Symptoms:

  • Discomfort
  • Swelling
  • Pain in eye

Signs:

  • Swelling present at eyelid margin
  • Redness
  • Tender(painful) swelling

Treatment:

  • Hot compress (3-4 times a day)
  • Analgesics (Pain relieving drugs)
  • Antibiotics (systemic)
  • Evacuation of pus.
  • Removal of infected eye lash.

 

BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS

 

Definition:

  • It is an acute inflammation of conjunctiva due to bacterial infection

Causes:

  • Staphylococcus
  • Pneumococcus

Symptoms:

  • Sticking of eyelids
  • Discomfort
  • Watering redness
  • Discharge

Signs:

  • Redness
  • Conjunctival congestion
  • Presence of discharge

Treatment:

  • In children Tobramycin eye drops
  • In adults Chloramphenicol eye drops            
  • In severe cases Ofloxacin eye drops

 

Red Eye

 

Definition:

Red eye is a very common disorder which needs immediate attention.

Causes of Red Eye:

There are many conditions/causes associated with the red eye; but few of them are more important to differentiate and timely assessment is necessary to keep the visual function intact.

Conjunctiva:

  • Conjunctivitis:
  • Bacterial
  • Viral
  • Allergic
  • Chlamydial

Cornea:

  • Corneal Ulcer:
  • Traumatic
  • Infectious

 

VIT. A Deficiency

 

VITAMIN:

  • Vitamins are those compounds, which helps in proper functioning of body and maintains health.

CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS
Vitamin Are classified into two groups

  1. Fat soluble
  2. Water soluble

01. Fat soluble

02. Water soluble

  • Vitamin ‘A’
  • Vitamin ‘B’ complex
  • Vitamin ‘D’
  • Vitamin B1, B2, B4, B6, B12
  • Vitamin ‘E’
  • Vitamin ‘C’
  • Vitamin ‘K’

 

 

Glaucoma

 

Definition:

  • It is a type of primary glaucoma in which IOP is raised due to obstruction in the out flow of aqueous humour.

Incidence:

  • Common in hypermetropes

Causes:

  • Obstruction to the out flow of aqueous humour due to narrow angle of anterior chamber or closed angle of anterior chamber.

Symptoms:

  • Severe pain in eye
  • Headache
  • Decreased vision
  • Photophobia
  • Watering
  • Nausea
  • Redness

 

Eye Allergic

 

Definition:

  • It is an inflammation of conjunctiva due to allergic reaction.

Causes:

  • Dust
  • Smoke
  • Pollens
  • Drugs
  • Common in summer season and in Dry hot climate

Signs:

  • Muddy eyes
  • Conjunctival congestion
  • Chemosis of conjunctiva
  • Papillae hypertrophy

Treatment:

  • Wash the eyes with cold water
  • Anti histamine eye drops
  • Mild steroid eye drops